Friday, August 15, 2014

Turner Field / Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium

Three posts in, and I'm already cheating. For this installment, I will be covering two blocks, which today make up Turner Field and the adjacent parking lot that used to be Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium. Worse, these two blocks are superblocks, which altogether make up the equivalent of 12 city blocks. So yeah...cheating.

It's a monster.

Of the original 12 blocks, I'll really only get into detail with one of them. The rest aren't especially noteworthy until (SPOILER ALERT) they're all demolished.

This is the only portion of the 12 blocks showing in the 1871 birds eye view.
This area of Atlanta, now part of the Summerhill neighborhood, began as an upscale residential area after the Civil War. Washington Street (now more-or-less Pollard Blvd) was gaining a reputation as one of the finest streets in Atlanta. The area was also home to a number of Jewish residents and would be a significant part of Atlanta's Jewish community for roughly a century.

In this 1878 atlas, some houses have been constructed, but much of the southern part
of the area is undeveloped. McDonough St became Capitol Ave shortly after.
The one block in the Old Twelve (it'll catch on) I'll be reviewing fell within Richardson Street, Capitol Avenue, Crumley Street, and Crew Street. Capitol Ave (now Hank Aaron Dr) is the only one that still remains today in this particular area. This block is the second one down on the right.

The blocks in 1892
That block is significant because of a house located on the corner of Capitol and Crumley that belonged to Charles Thomas Swift. Swift, a businessman from Perry, GA, moved his S.S.S. Tonic Company to Atlanta in 1873. The tonic, marketed as a cure-all for everything including cancer, is still on the market today as an herbal supplement.

Charles Thomas Swift
Swift built his lovely new home at Capitol and Crumley in 1875. He lived there with his wife Lena and their five children until his death in 1890. Lena remarried in 1900 and moved to a new house a block or two south.

Charles Thomas Swift House, illustration from Harper's Weekly, 1887
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
The Swift House on the southern corner of the block, 1892
The house was briefly a rental property until 1904, when it was purchased by an Austrian immigrant named Ludwig Amster. Amster was a Jewish physician who moved to Atlanta in 1894 and practiced medicine out of his home on Washington Street. He wanted to open a sanitarium...sanatorium? to treat stomach and intestinal disorders and felt the handsome decor of the 14-room Swift House made it suitable for patients.

Dr. Ludwig Amster in front of Piedmont Sanatorium, ca. 1920.
Courtesy of Piedmont Hospital
The 8-bed hospital opened in 1905 as Amster Private Sanatorium before quickly changing to Piedmont Sanatorium. Amster invited his friend and colleague Dr. Floyd W. McRae to be the hospital's Chief of Surgery and Gynecology. Amster's wife Flora was the hospital's first business manager, handling day-to-day operations like meals and bookkeeping.

Piedmont Sanatorium, ca. 1920
Courtesy of Piedmont Hospital
The hospital's immediate success led to many expansions over the years, which would transform the shape of the block. The Piedmont Sanatorium School for Nurses soon opened, and graduates fondly remembered it being like boot camp. Dr. McRae, an avid motorist, used to take nurses for rides around the block in his fancy automobile machine thing.

Student Nurses, 1915
Courtesy of Piedmont Hospital
New annexes were built in 1908 and 1921 with new departments, beds, and operating rooms. Remaining houses on the block were used for nurses' quarters. The hospital itself ultimately took up the entire southern half of the block. In 1925, the name officially changed to Piedmont Hospital, which is what most people had been calling it unofficially for years.

Second block down on the right is the Piedmont block, 1928.
Close-up of that block.
View from the back at Crew and Crumley, 1934
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
During WWII, many of Piedmont's physicians and nurses went to Europe to assist with the war effort. Shortly after the war, the hospital's board began eyeing a new location. The hospital was outgrowing its current location, and the old Swift House, though lovely, was aging to the point of sanitary concerns, lacking modern amenities like air conditioning.

Piedmont Hospital, 1952
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Construction began on a new hospital on Peachtree Street in 1954. The new facility officially opened on March 26, 1957 when 15 ambulances transported patients from the Capitol Ave location to what remains Piedmont Hospital's current location today. At the last staff meeting at the old location in 1957, Dr. John B. Duncan presented the following poem:

No one has asked me to do this,
So don't anyone laugh.
As one of the oldest
Members of Piedmont staff,
I only have this to say--
"Hail and farewell," on
This, our last day.
For the past thirty-four years,
Day and night,
I've been riding this route,
With no relief in sight.
But now, through the supreme effort of--
Staff, nurses, doctors, well-wishers, and friends,
We now have arrived at a climactic end.
The minutes of this meeting
Should be preserved for "Posterity."
So all who follow can read and see,
What a swell project this turned out to be.
I do hope these sentimental little lines,
Will bring home to us that oft repeated rhyme
"There is a strange pathos in doing the simplest things for the last time."

Postcard ca. 1920
Postcard ca. 1930
The property was then sold to the City of Atlanta Housing Authority, who demolished everything in 1960. A magnolia tree on the corner of Richardson and Capitol apparently survived for a while, but I'll bet you a donut it's dead and gone now. The image below is roughly what the block looks like today. For more historic images of Piedmont Hospital, visit their Pinterest page here.

The careful attention to greenspace is almost as evident as my sarcasm.
The other 11 blocks remained mostly residential in the first half of the 20th century, with Georgia Avenue becoming a small shopping district, complete with a movie theater on the corner of Georgia and Crew, and Fritz' Ice Cream shop nearby. Most of Atlanta's wealthiest residents were moving to suburbs, leaving areas like this one open to low and middle income residents. By 1960, about half of those residents remained Jewish, with the other half mostly African American.

This 1949 aerial photograph shows how dense the area had become.
With the decline of the area's income level, the property there was deemed less desirable. In 1960, multiple blocks were cleared as part of the Washington-Rawson Urban Renewal project. Several blocks in the neighborhood had already been cleared for highway construction. The initial plans for our blocks included white public housing, but many black residents felt that since so many low income black people had been displaced by the demolition, the new housing project should be for black residents. The land sat vacant for years.

Land cleared in Washington-Rawson area, ca. 1960.
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr., wanting to avoid the controversy that would come with either choice, decided that the area would not be developed for housing at all. Instead, he chose the Washington-Rawson area for the development of a new stadium he had been wanting. Allen, elected mayor in 1961, had a vision of bringing professional sports to Atlanta, but was struggling to find a suitable stadium location. He argued the Washington-Rawson location worked because it would help revitalize the decaying downtown area by bringing people in for sporting events. It failed to do that, though, because the area was already completely cut off from downtown by interstates, making it extremely difficult to go back and forth between locations.

City planners weren't convinced the new stadium location was a good idea either, arguing that parking and traffic would be major issues resulting in further displacement of residents (we'll get to that). One top planner resigned over the dispute. Despite all warnings, construction of the new Atlanta Stadium commenced in 1965 before a sports team had even been signed.

Atlanta Stadium Construction, 1965
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
As president of the Atlanta Chamber of Commerce, Allen had made several connections in the city's business elite. He called on Citizens & Southern bank president Mills Lane to front the credit for the new stadium construction in exchange for Lane's recommended appointments for a new Stadium Authority (including Lane himself as treasurer and Coca-Cola executive Arthur Montgomery as chairman).

Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. during Atlanta Stadium construction, 1964.
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
The stadium was completed in 1965, a year before the Braves moved in. In the meantime, the Beatles performed their only Atlanta show ever at the stadium on August 18, 1965. Atlanta Time Machine has some great images related to that show here.

Opening Day for the Atlanta Braves was April 12, 1966 against the Pittsburgh Pirates. The Braves lost 3-2. 

Hank Aaron's equipment, Opening Day: April 12, 1966
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Despite the fanfare related to Atlanta's new professional sports team, there were some bumps in the road. Criticism of the new stadium came mainly from the Summerhill neighborhood that was significantly affected by the stadium. The main issue was parking. The parking study commissioned by the stadium authority figured that each car would hold four people, and that 3,250 people would arrive by bus. 4,100 parking spaces were then recommended for the new 55,000-seat stadium, leaving 35,350 potential people with no parking spots.

The Braves demanded that the city add 2,500 more parking spaces within 10 years, which the city did, but that was still not enough. Since so many people had to find unofficial parking, the remaining areas of Summerhill were flooded with cars. Many property owners recognized that they could make more money selling parking spots than renting to low-income tenants, so rental properties were razed and replaced by "gypsy" parking lots.

People used to live here.
In addition to parking issues, the stadium's traffic plan made a number of streets in the area one-way before and after games. That made it incredibly difficult for area residents to go to and from home during game times. In addition, parking lots replaced the Georgia Ave commercial area, leaving remaining residents with fewer shopping options nearby. The post-game fireworks were also a problem for many residents, particularly when games went extra innings. One game in 1993 went so long that fireworks went off at 4:15 am.

I know you have to get up for work in two hours, but THE BRAVES WON!!
Nevertheless, one neighborhood's problems were not enough to impede the city's excitement, and the Atlanta Braves would be Summerhill residents for the next 50 years.

Atlanta Braves mascot Chief Nok-a-Homa, 1966.  Yup.
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Big Victor, 1967
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
On April 8, 1974, Hank Aaron broke Babe Ruth's record and scored his 715th home run at Atlanta Stadium. In 1976, Ted Turner purchased the Braves, and the stadium's name changed to Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium.

Hank Aaron hitting his record-breaking homer, 1974
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Professional football also came to Atlanta Stadium in 1966 with the arrival of the Atlanta Falcons. Opening Day was September 11, 1966 against the LA Rams. The Falcons lost 19-14.

Atlanta Stadium set up for a Falcons game, 1966
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Atlanta Falcons vs. LA Rams, 1966
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Atlanta Stadium was also home to the Chiefs, Atlanta's professional soccer team from 1967 to 1972, then again from 1979 to 1981. Poor attendance ultimately led to the team's (and league's) demise.

Atlanta Chiefs Schedule, 1980
In 1986, the Falcons began lobbying for their own stadium, threatening to move the team to Jacksonville if their demands weren't met. Consultants were hired over the next few years to determine the new stadium's location and specifications, and one study suggested that Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium was obsolete for both the Falcons and the Braves. Can of worms: opened.

In preparation for the upcoming Olympics bid, the Atlanta Olympic Committee began secretly negotiating a new stadium with the Braves that would be used for the Olympic Games (should Atlanta win the bid) and then be turned over to the Braves for a new baseball stadium. As we all know, Atlanta did win the bid in 1990, and these plans were then made known to the public. The Falcons moved to their new home, the Georgia Dome, in 1992.

Since the new stadium was to be erected just south of the existing one, residents of the Peoplestown neighborhood nearby expressed concerns that their neighborhood would experience the same problems that Summerhill did. They organized Atlanta Neighborhoods United for Fairness (A'NUFF) and lobbied for better parking and traffic plans, a ban on gypsy lots, increased neighborhood security, and a cut-off time for fireworks.

These demands were largely not met. There were 8,900 parking spaces now available and a ban on gypsy parking, but the new spaces still weren't enough, and the gypsy parking ban was rarely enforced.

The new Centennial Olympic Stadium plan was conceived by the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games and the Braves with very little input from city or county officials. Construction commenced in 1995.

Looking south toward Centennial Olympic Stadium construction, 1995
Courtesy of AJC
Centennial Olympic Stadium had a capacity of 85,000 people and was home to the 1996 Olympics' track and field events as well as Opening and Closing Ceremonies.

Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium to the north, Olympic Stadium to the south
After the Olympics, it was converted to the new Braves stadium, Turner Field, with a capacity of almost 50,000. Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium's footprint is preserved as a large parking lot for the new stadium. The Braves started their 1997 season at Turner Field with a 20-year lease, and there has been no controversy of any kind since.

Turner Field today
Below I've put together maps and aerial views from four eras so you can see how the blocks changed over time. Click the image to enlarge.

1878, 1928, 1949, 2014

Until next time...

Wednesday, August 6, 2014

Enriching Mind Organs

Just wanted to quickly say thank you to Creative Loafing for featuring this blog this morning.  As the new kid on the block (Get it??  Sorry...), I was very surprised an honored to get a mention.  Check out the article for other great Atlanta history blogs, all of which I have enjoyed and recommend.

Tuesday, August 5, 2014

Westin Peachtree Plaza

This post comes to you with help from Leslie Kilpatrick and Jennifer Barger, who contributed a ton of the research. Thanks ladies! (It also helped get this one out so quickly, so expect longer wait times in the future.)

So anyway, this post's block falls within Peachtree St, Ellis St, Carnegie Way, Spring St, and Andrew Young International Blvd. It is currently home to one of the most recognizable buildings in Atlanta's skyline, the Westin Peachtree.

Ugh, it's not even a square!!

Before the Civil War, banker John H. James purchased a portion of the block along Peachtree and Ellis for $1,500 and built his home there. James spent the Civil War in the Bahamas (sure, ok), and when he returned, he sold his lot and purchased another one on the block to build an even better home at Peachtree and Cain (now Andy Young Blvd) in 1869.

John H. James
John H. James Mansion
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Within a year, James sold his new Victorian residence to the State of Georgia for $100,000 in bonds, and the house became the first official Executive Mansion (Governor's Mansion) in Atlanta. Rufus Bullock, Georgia's first Republican governor, was also the first of 17 governors to live in the mansion.

Governor Rufus Bullock and his awesome face thing.
Courtesy of the Library of Congress
1888 watercolor engraving of the Executive Mansion
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Governor's Mansion Interior, 1895
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Other homes cropped up along the block at this time, which you can see in the 1871 birds-eye view below. The grandest homes lined Peachtree on the eastern edge of the block, with more modest homes lining Church St (now Carnegie).

1871 birds-eye drawing.  The Executive Mansion is on the northeast corner, labeled #4.
Courtesy of the Library of Congress
The house just south of the Executive Mansion was built in 1858 for William Herring and designed by John Boutell. During the federal occupation of Atlanta, the Greek Revival home served as headquarters for Union General George Thomas. In 1878, Austin Leyden married Herring's daughter Catherine and moved into the house, so the house is commonly referred to as the Leyden House. The Leyden House is referenced in Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind as being close to Rhett Butler's house (sorry, Windies, but that part's fiction).

Union soldiers at the Leyden House, 1864
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Meanwhile, John H. James, who had been elected 21st mayor of Atlanta in 1871, built himself yet another new house on the corner of Peachtree and Ellis. He then sold that home in 1884 to the Capital City Club, an Atlanta social club founded in 1883. The Peachtree Street entrance of the clubhouse was used for men, while women had to use the side entrance off Ellis Street.

He-Man Women Haters Club, 1890
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Next door to the club house was another postbellum mansion, owned first by tailor John B. Jones, then by banker R. H. Richards. The 1895 image below shows the Peachtree side of our block, with (left to right), the Capital City Club (the spires were apparently removed), the Richards mansion, the Leyden House, and the Executive Mansion (only the tippy top is visible).
Peachtree St, 1895.  It's getting fancy up in here!
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Jones-Richards Mansion
1878 atlas showing all properties n the block.
By this time, the Leyden Home had become a boarding house run by the Leyden family, whose tenants were often wealthy bachelors. Comparing the 1895 image below to the 1864 image, you can see some structural updates to the house, like the second-story balustrade.

Leyden Bachelor Pad, 1895
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
In the 1892 birds-eye drawing below, you can see all the mansions lining Peachtree to the east and the cluster of smaller dwellings along Church St to the southwest. Just behind the Capital City Club is the Church of the Redeemer (later the Central Congregational Church), built in 1885. An interior photograph of the church is below, and part of the exterior can be seen in the 1890 photo of the Capital City Club above.

1892 birds-eye view
Courtesy of the Library of Congress
Church of the Redeemer interior, 1890
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
The 20th century brought drastic changes to the block, beginning with the death of Austin Leyden in 1900. The Leyden house was eventually purchased in 1909 by Coca-Cola Company founder Asa Griggs Candler for $100,000. Candler also purchased the Capital City Club house in 1913 after the club moved to its current building two blocks north in 1911 (Fun Fact: Candler was a prominent member of the club). Candler demolished both properties by 1913, leading to "rife speculation" about his plans for the block.

Atlanta Constitution clipping showing the demolished
Capital City Club building, dated January 31, 1913
The Leyden House, though destroyed, partially lives on in Atlanta's Ansley Park neighborhood. Candler opted to save the house's columns, and they were transferred to Woodbury Hall School for Girls, which remains today as Peachtree Circle Apartments.  History Atlanta has a great article about the saga of the Leyden House and its columns.

Peachtree Circle Apartments in Ansley Park with 158-year-old columns.
The Richards mansion changed hands in 1910 with the death of Mrs. Richards (now Mrs. Abbott, re-married and re-widowed). The University Club moved in the following year and occupied the home until 1916. By 1920, that home had also been demolished, leaving the Executive Mansion as the block's only remaining Peachtree residence. You can see that in the 1919 birds-eye drawing below, although it's a little hard to tell. You can see a couple other structures on the block, mostly dwarfed by larger structures on surrounding blocks. Our block sits largely vacant.

The Winecoff and the Bussey building block our view of
a whole lot of nothing in this 1919 birds-eye drawing.
Courtesy of the Library of Congress
The Executive Mansion didn't last too much longer either. Governor Hugh M. Dorsey vacated that house in 1921, feeling that its dilapidated state left it unfit for residency. Dorsey, who had made a name for himself as prosecutor for the Leo Frank trial in 1913, was the last governor to live in the mansion, and the home was torn down in 1923.

Governor Hugh M. Dorsey, really picky about his mansions.
One last stroll before it's all gone forever. (Photograph from 1907)
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
The Executive Mansion lot didn't sit vacant for too long before the Henry Grady Hotel took its place. Named for the Atlanta Constitution editor and New South proponent (you may have heard of him), the Henry Grady Hotel was designed by G. Lloyd Preacher & Company and opened in 1924. The Daughters of the Confederacy threw a ball opening day celebrating the hotel and Grady's New South vision. Rooms were for whites only, which led to two Atlanta University students staging a lie-in at the hotel in 1963.

Postcard of Henry Grady Hotel
Attached to the southern side of Henry Grady Hotel on Peachtree were two theaters: the Keith-Albee Georgia Theatre (re-named the Roxy in 1938) and the Capitol Theatre. Both theaters played films and stage shows, and like the rest of Atlanta at the time, they were segregated spaces with separate box offices and entrances for white and black patrons.

Georgia Theatre Program, 1927
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Capitol and Roxy Theatres, 1944
Courtesy of Georgia State University Special Collections
Roxy Theatre Candy Stand, 1947
Courtesy of Georgia State University Special Collections
Roxy Theatre Colored Entrance, 1954
Courtesy of Georgia State University Special Collections
An office building called the Red Rock was also constructed on the block in the 1920s on the corner of Cain and Spring. The Red Rock held offices for companies like General Electric and Singer Sewing Machines.

A far more significant addition to the block came in 1927, though, when Asa Candler's master plan finally came to fruition. Candler contracted Davison's to build a new department store, designed by Atlanta architect Philip Shutze, taking up the remainder of the Peachtree side of the block. Davison's (formerly Davison & Douglas, Davison-Paxon-Stokes, and Davison-Paxon) was an Atlanta-based department store that had recently been purchased by Macy's. Davison's was also segregated back then, with the lower levels of the store (called Davison's Basement) reserved for black customers.

Davison's at the corner of Peachtree and Ellis, 1940s
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Davison's Interior
Davison's initially flourished for many years, adding a parking deck and new store space in 1949. The store was modernized in 1963, but as the 20th century waned, downtown department stores couldn't compete with suburban malls, and Davison's was no exception. It changed its name to Macy's in 1985 and continued to decline until it finally closed in 2003.

Looking south on Peachtree from Henry Grady Hotel to Davison's, 1956
Courtesy of Georgia State University Special Collections
The Henry Grady Hotel remained open until 1974 when civic leaders' dreams of a world-class Atlanta led to its demolition in favor of a new modern hotel (demolition seen below).  

Embodiment of New South vision deemed an outdated relic.  There's a metaphor in there somewhere.
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
John Portman, Jr., an Atlanta-based architect (and another member of the Capital City Club), designed the new Westin hotel in place of Grady. Portman's master plan for downtown, dubbed Peachtree Center, was created in 1958 and included offices, hotels, and convention space spanning several city blocks.  

Architect John Portman and his awesome head thing.
The first of Portman's downtown Atlanta buildings was the Merchandise Mart (now part of AmericasMart) in 1961, followed by the Peachtree Center office towers in 1965, and the Hyatt Regency in 1967. Portman's vision came to our block in 1976 with the completion of the Westin Peachtree Plaza.

Westin Peachtree under construction, 1974
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Construction progress, 1975.  Onward and upward!
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
Many of Portman's hotels are known for their large, open atria. The Westin, however, was constructed on a comparatively narrow lot, resulting in its tall, cylindrical guestroom tower atop a base with the lobby and public space. The base extends along Andy Young International Blvd, the northern edge of the block, from Peachtree to Spring St. The tower portion is close to the corner of Andy Young and Spring. At the time of its completion in 1976, the 723-ft Westin Peachtree was the tallest building in Atlanta and the tallest hotel in the world.

It's so tall it looks like it's scraping the sky!
I wonder if there's a name for a building like that...
View at street level on Peachtree.
The top three floors of the 73-floor hotel house the Sun Dial, a revolving restaurant and lounge that provides a panoramic view of Atlanta's surroundings.

Sun Dial rendering
Courtesy of Atlanta History Center
On March 14, 2008, a tornado ripped through downtown Atlanta, damaging over 500 of the Westin's mirrored windows. The manufacturer no longer made glass to the original windows' specifications, so the window repairs weren't completed until 2010.

500 broken mirror windows adds up to 3500 years bad luck.
Significant renovations to the Davison's/Macy's building, which had been largely vacant since the store closed in 2003, began in 2008.  The renovations include retail, convention space, and a banquet hall. Called 200 Peachtree, the building has housed Meehan's Irish Pub and Sweet Georgia's Juke Joint since 2010.

200 Peachtree
And that pretty much brings us up to date. A plaque on 200 Peachtree's facade mentions the grand mansions that once lined Peachtree Street. Now there are only two buildings on the block (three if you count the parking deck), constructed roughly 50 years apart.

Below I've taken the buildings shown in the 1878 atlas and added them to the block as it appears today.

Here endeth the lesson.